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  1. Ethylene fluorohydrin is a liquid fluoro alcohol compound which is miscible in water. Little specific data were available specifically about the toxicity of ethylene fluorohydrin; its toxicity is expected to be similar to that of FLUOROACETATE, as it is oxidized to fluoroacetate by tissue alcohol dehydrogenase.
    1. Ethylene fluorohydrin may be absorbed following ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact. It is used as a rodenticide, although it is not registered for use as a pesticide in the US.
    1. The following review discusses the toxicity and treatment of poisoning with FLUOROACETATE.
  1. Clinical effects are usually seen within 1/2 hour of exposure. Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, excessive salivation, abdominal pain, numbness, a tingling sensation, and apprehension are seen initially, and may last for up to 6 hours. Muscular twitching, blurred vision, and hypotension may develop.
    1. Severe effects such as coma, convulsions, and cardiac arrhythmias may be delayed in onset as long as 20 hours. One death due to subacute fluoroacetate poisoning has been reported.
    1. The cardiac effects noted include tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden onset of asystole.
    1. Death may occur from respiratory depression and hypoxia during convulsions or cardiac arrest.
    1. Neurologic sequelae and acute renal failure have been described after acute poisoning.
    1. Metabolic acidosis, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, elevated levels of hepatic transaminases, and elevated serum creatinine may occur in fluoroacetate poisoning.
  1. At least one case of severe poisoning with numbness and tingling of the face, excessive salivation, blurred vision, peripheral paresthesias, convulsions, and coma has occurred from inhalation and dermal contact with fluoroacetate. In general, fluoroacetate is absorbed following ingestion and inhalation, but not through intact skin.
  1. Fluoroacetate mimics acetic acid and reacts with coenzyme A and oxaloacetic acid, forming fluorocitric acid which enters and blocks the Kreb's cycle, allowing accumulation of citric acid.
  1. Ethylene fluorohydrin releases toxic and irritating fluoride fumes when heated to decomposition.
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