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Example Content from MEDITEXT for Malathion:
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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- WITH THERAPEUTIC USE
- The following are signs and symptoms from organophosphates in general, which are due to the anticholinesterase activity of this class of compounds. All of these effects may not be documented for malathion, but could potentially occur in individual cases.
- USES: Malathion is a nonsystemic acaracide and insecticide and is considered the least toxic of the organophosphates. Malathion is also used in the treatment of pediculus humanus capitis (head lice and their ova) infections of the scalp hair.
- TOXICOLOGY: Organophosphates competitively inhibit pseudocholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase, preventing hydrolysis and inactivation of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine accumulates at nerve junctions, causing malfunction of the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and peripheral nervous systems and some of the CNS. Clinical signs of cholinergic excess can develop.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: Exposure to organophosphates is common, but serious toxicity is unusual in the US.
- WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
- EFFECTS FOLLOWING THERAPEUTIC USE
- Systemic effects have not been reported with topical use of malathion 0.5% solution used in the treatment of pediculus humanus capitis (head lice). The solution is manufactured in an isopropyl alcohol (78%) vehicle which can produce local irritation to the skin. If inadvertent ingestion of malathion solution occurs, the effects of isopropyl alcohol toxicity should be considered. Refer to ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL document for more information.
- ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING EFFECTS
- MILD TO MODERATE POISONING: MUSCARINIC EFFECTS: Can include bradycardia, salivation, lacrimation, diaphoresis, vomiting, diarrhea, urination, and miosis. NICOTINIC EFFECTS: Tachycardia, hypertension, mydriasis, and muscle cramps.
- SEVERE POISONING: MUSCARINIC EFFECTS: Bronchorrhea, bronchospasm, and acute lung injury. NICOTINIC EFFECTS: Muscle fasciculations, weakness, and respiratory failure. CENTRAL EFFECTS: CNS depression, agitation, confusion, delirium, coma, and seizures. Hypotension, ventricular dysrhythmias, metabolic acidosis, pancreatitis, and hyperglycemia can also develop.
- DELAYED EFFECTS: Intermediate syndrome is characterized by paralysis of respiratory, cranial motor, neck flexor, and proximal limb muscles 1 to 4 days after apparent recovery from cholinergic toxicity, and prior to the development of delayed peripheral neuropathy. Manifestations can include the inability to lift the neck or sit up, ophthalmoparesis, slow eye movements, facial weakness, difficulty swallowing, limb weakness (primarily proximal), areflexia, and respiratory paralysis. Recovery begins 5 to 15 days after onset. Distal sensory-motor polyneuropathy may rarely develop 6 to 21 days following exposure to some organophosphate compounds, however, it has not yet been reported in humans after exposure to malathion. Characterized by burning or tingling followed by weakness beginning in the legs which then spreads proximally. In severe cases, it may result in spasticity or flaccidity. Recovery requires months and may not be complete.
- CHILDREN: May have different predominant signs and symptoms than adults (more likely CNS depression, stupor, coma, flaccidity, dyspnea, and seizures). Children may also have fewer muscarinic and nicotinic signs of intoxication (i.e., secretions, bradycardia, fasciculations and miosis) as compared to adults.
- INHALATION EXPOSURE: Organophosphate vapors rapidly produce mucous membrane and upper airway irritation and bronchospasm, followed by systemic muscarinic, nicotinic and central effects if exposed to significant concentrations.
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