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|Example of Acute Exposure data from MEDITEXT.|
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Example Content from MEDITEXT for Cadmium:
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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- SOURCES: Heavy metal used in industrial processes. Primarily found in nickel-cadmium batteries, in electroplating, as an alloy, and in some solders.
- TOXICOLOGY: Interferes with cellular function through a variety of mechanisms, including interfering with protein function and calcium homeostasis.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: Uncommon poisoning and primarily an occupational exposure, although environmental exposures have occurred from foods contaminated with cadmium.
- WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
- ACUTE INHALATIONAL: Cadmium fume fever (caused by inhalation of fumes generated with welding, soldering, or brazing), characterized by cough, fever, chills, wheezing, headache, pleuritic chest pain, myalgias, and sore throat, typically develops 4 to 12 hours following an acute inhalational exposure and resolves within 1 to 2 days. In severe cadmium inhalation, pneumonitis or acute lung injury may develop 24 hours or longer after exposure and may progress to respiratory failure.
- ACUTE INGESTION: Ingestion of large amounts usually produces vomiting, diarrhea (which can be hemorrhagic), and abdominal pain. This can progress to hypotension, renal failure, and death. Large overdoses can result in caustic injury to the gastrointestinal tract. Hepatotoxicity is uncommon.
- CHRONIC INHALATIONAL: May cause emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis and is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium is considered an IARC class I carcinogen.
- CHRONIC INGESTION: Primarily causes bone disease (often termed itai-itai disease) and renal injury. Cadmium accumulates in bones leading to osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and pathologic fractures. Kidney disease primarily manifests as proteinuria and Fanconi syndrome and less often as nephrolithiasis. Neurotoxicity, including peripheral neuropathy, parkinsonism, and anosmia, has been described.
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