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|Example of Acute Exposure data from MEDITEXT.|
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Example Content from MEDITEXT for Benzyl Alcohol:
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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- USES: Benzyl alcohol lotion (5%) is indicated for the topical treatment of head lice in patients 6 months of age and older. Benzyl alcohol is a common preservative in parenteral medications. It is also used in perfumes and flavors, as a bacteriostatic or viricidal agent in cosmetics, ointments, emulsions, and lotions, as a photographic developer for films and lithography, and as a dye for textiles, nylon carpets, and sheet plastics.
- PHARMACOLOGY: In studies, benzyl alcohol inhibited lice from closing their respiratory spiracles, which allowed the vehicle to obstruct the spiracles and asphyxiate the lice. Benzyl alcohol is a weak local anesthetic with disinfectant properties.
- TOXICOLOGY: Benzyl alcohol is oxidized in the liver to benzoic acid, then conjugated with glycine, and excreted in the urine as hippuric acid. Infants are less able to metabolize benzoic acid to hippuric acid, possibly because of glycine deficiency. Therefore, benzoic acid will be accumulated, causing "gasping syndrome" in the neonates receiving an IV product containing benzyl alcohol.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: Exposure to IV products containing benzyl alcohol is common, but severe toxicity is rare, and generally only develops in neonates. Severe toxicity has not been reported after ingestion or dermal application.
- WITH THERAPEUTIC USE
- TOPICAL: Eye irritation, allergic or irritant dermatitis, including pruritus and pyoderma have been reported in patients using topical benzyl alcohol.
- WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
- TOXICITY: Benzyl alcohol poisoning can result from oral, parenteral, dermal, inhalational, and ocular exposures. Neonates receiving IV products containing benzyl alcohol may experience "gasping syndrome", characterized by severe metabolic acidosis, gasping respirations, CNS depression, seizures, intraventricular hemorrhage, hematologic abnormalities, skin breakdown, hepatic and renal failure, progressive hypotension, bradycardia, cardiovascular collapse, and death. A 5-year-old girl developed severe metabolic acidosis following a continuous diazepam infusion. Benzyl alcohol toxicity was confirmed from benzoic acid serum and urine concentrations.
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