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|Example of Acute Exposure data from MEDITEXT.|
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Example Content from MEDITEXT for Aluminum:
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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- USES: Aluminum is ubiquitous, it is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The majority of human exposure comes from food. It is present in some pharmaceuticals, primarily antacids, analgesics, antacids, antidiarrheals, astringents and as adjuvants for vaccines. In industry it is widely used in construction materials and packaging.
- TOXICOLOGY: Aluminum inhibits bone remodeling, causing osteomalacia. It is believed to inhibit erythropoiesis, causing anemia.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: Acute toxicity is rare. Most cases of aluminum toxicity in humans are in one of two categories: patients with chronic renal failure, or people exposed to aluminum in the workplace. Soluble forms of aluminum (such as aluminum chloride (AlCl(3+)), aluminum fluoride (AlF(3)), aluminum sulfate (Al(SO4)3) and aluminum citrate (AlC(6)H(8)O(7))) have greater potential for toxicity than insoluble forms (such as aluminum hydroxide (AlOH(3))), due to their greater absorption.
- WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
- MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: Acute aluminum toxicity is very unlikely to develop. Chronic aluminum hydroxide use can cause constipation.
- SEVERE TOXICITY: Patients with renal failure are prone to aluminum toxicity, either from aluminum in the dialysate or other exogenous sources, especially aluminum-containing phosphate binders and antacids. Signs and symptoms may include dementia, memory loss, aphasia, ataxia, seizures, altered EEG, and osteomalacia.
- PULMONARY: Chronic exposure to aluminum dust may cause dyspnea, cough, pulmonary fibrosis, pneumothorax, pneumoconiosis, encephalopathy, weakness, incoordination, and epileptiform seizures.
- OCULAR: Aluminum particles deposited in the eye are generally innocuous. Aluminum salts may cause irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes, conjunctivitis, dermatoses, and eczema.
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