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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- EFFECTS NOT INCLUDED - The EFFECTS of BREATHING INSUFFICIENT OXYGEN (HYPOXIA) are NOT DISCUSSED in this review.
- CIRCUMSTANCES OF OXYGEN TOXICITY -
- NORMOBARIC HYPEROXIA -
- Prolonged Breathing of Elevated Oxygen Concentrations at Normal Pressure
- SUMMARY -
- TOXIC EFFECTS involving the EYES, LUNGS, and CNS may develop in persons breathing oxygen at partial pressures greater than those in normal air.
- Inhalation of 100% oxygen can result in nausea, dizziness, pulmonary irritation leading to pulmonary edema, and pneumonitis. Intense and potentially fatal pulmonary edema may develop.
- Tracheal irritation, fever, nausea, vomiting, acute bronchitis developing several hours later, sinusitis, malaise, transient paresthesias and conjunctivitis may occur.
- NEONATAL -
- SUMMARY - Premature neonates requiring prolonged normobaric hyperoxygenation may develop RETROLENTAL FIBROPLASIA, BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA, myopia, pulmonary air leaks from ALVEOLAR RUPTURE with a variety of complications, and (CONTROVERSIAL if due all or in part to hyperoxia) intracerebral hemorrhage or necrotizing enterocolitis.
- HYPERBARIC HYPEROXIA -
- CNS TOXICITY - Toxicity of oxygen at elevated concentrations and pressures is usually only seen in divers, personnel and patients in hyperbaric chambers, and in rescue squad members in tunnels and mines. Seizures may be seen in diving or hyperbaric chamber accidents.
- PULMONARY TOXICITY - Volunteers breathing oxygen at 3.0 ATA for 3.5 hours experienced chest discomfort, dyspnea, and cough; decreased mean FEV1, FEF(25-75), and vital capacity; and one subject had a seizure.
- OCULAR TOXICITY - In normal adult volunteers exposed at 3.0 ATA for 4 hours, a progressive contraction of the visual fields, impaired central vision, and mydriasis developed. These effects were reversible if the exposure was stopped.
- Nuclear cataracts have developed during prolonged hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
- PRESSURE COMPLICATIONS - Treatment in hyperbaric chambers has been associated with complications of tension pneumothorax, epistaxis, otalgia, and tympanic membrane rupture.
- HYPOBARIC HYPEROXIA -
- This situation is specific to astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA) maneuvers when wearing a reduced pressure single-gas space suit.
- LIQUID OXYGEN -
- FROSTBITE INJURY - Direct contact with the escaping compressed gas or liquid oxygen may cause frostbite injury to the skin and eyes.
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