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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (C56) is highly irritating. Exposure effects may include cough, dyspnea, chest discomfort, headache, dizziness and burns. Proteinuria and elevated serum liver enzymes may occur. Pulmonary damage may range from bronchitis, chemical pneumonitis, bronchiolitis, and pulmonary edema to respiratory failure.
- Inhalation may cause coughing, difficult breathing, cyanosis, sneezing and salivation. Inhalation may be fatal because of bronchial spasm, inflammation, and edema of the larynx and bronchi. Degenerative changes of the brain, heart, liver (elevations in liver enzymes), adrenals, and kidneys have been reported.
- The compound is corrosive to tissues. Dermal and/or ocular contact ranges from irritation of the eyes, throat, nose and skin to dermatitis and burns.
- Other signs and symptoms of poisoning include: nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nervousness, oliguria, proteinuria, hematuria, jaundice, hepatomegaly, optic neuritis, unconsciousness, coma, ventricular fibrillation.
- In experimental animals, the lung is the primary target organ for C56 toxicity even with oral administration. Degenerative changes were observed in multiple organ systems. Animal studies demonstrated the development of pulmonary edema, pulmonary hemorrhages, and necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis. Diffuse degenerative changes of the central nervous system, heart, liver, adrenals, and kidneys have been observed. Even at the lowest exposure concentration (0.15 ppm) degenerative changes were observed in the liver and kidney.
- In human studies: workers noted eye and throat irritation, cough, chest discomfort and headache. Medical examination showed proteinuria and elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Reported human cases have generally been mild.
- Hexachlorocyclopentadiene was negative in the Salmonella assay and the sex-linked recessive lethal mutation assay in Drosophila. This compound caused induction of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.
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