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|Example of Acute Exposure data from MEDITEXT.|
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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- Bis(chloromethyl)ketone is a plate- or needle-like, water soluble, crystalline solid material. It is a lacrimator and vesicant agent, and may be absorbed systemically following ingestion, inhalation, or through intact skin.
- Bis(chloromethyl)ketone is used in polyurethane foams, backcoating for textiles, and in adhesives; it was formerly used in textiles such as polyester fabrics.
- Ketones are hydrocarbons with the general structural formula of (R-CO-R) (where "R" represents various functional groups). Because of good solvent properties, low cost factors, generally low flammability, and generally low toxicity, ketones are frequently used as chemical intermediates and solvents for lacquers, vinyl polymers, resins, cotton, dyes, and pigments.
- The primary toxicity of the ketones is as central nervous system depressants and mild irritants of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes.
- Various ketones are absorbed by ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure. Absorption through the skin of toxic amounts of ketones is common and rapid.
- Animals exposed to HIGH concentrations of most of the ketones sustained damage to lungs (emphysema), liver, kidneys, and brain (edema), but such has not been found in long term occupational epidemiologic studies in humans.
- Exposure to ketone solvents should be generally be managed as HYDROCARBON exposures (Refer to the HYDROCARBONS MEDITEXT Medical Management for more information).
- The LOWER the VISCOSITY of the involved solvent, the more readily it can penetrate deeply into the pulmonary tree after aspiration; also the greater the likelihood of serious lipoid pneumonitis.
- The minimal toxic or lethal dose of various ketones are not well established in the literature. Estimation of the severity of intoxication should be based primarily on clinical findings.
- For most ketone compounds, the exposures required for development of such effects as peripheral neuropathies and hepatotoxicity are well above those generally found in the workplace.
- Bis(chloromethyl)ketone releases toxic and irritating fumes of chlorides when heated to decomposition. Inhalation exposure to such fumes would be predicted to result in respiratory tract irritation with bronchospasm, chemical pneumonitis, or noncardiogenic pulmonary edema.
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