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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- USES: Thiofanox is a carbamate compound. It is used as a systemic insecticide and acaricide. Thiofanox is not registered for use in the US.
- TOXICOLOGY: Thiofanox, like other carbamate pesticides, is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Unlike organophosphates, carbamates cause reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase; their effects are similar to those of the organophosphates, but are not as severe and disappear more quickly.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: Exposure to carbamate insecticides is common, but serious toxicity is unusual in the US. Common source of severe poisoning in developing countries. Toxicity is generally less severe than with organophosphates.
- WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
- MILD TO MODERATE POISONING: MUSCARINIC EFFECTS: Can include bradycardia, salivation, lacrimation, diaphoresis, vomiting, diarrhea, urination, and miosis. NICOTINIC EFFECTS: Tachycardia, hypertension, mydriasis, and muscle cramps may develop.
- SEVERE POISONING: MUSCARINIC EFFECTS: Bronchorrhea, bronchospasm, and acute lung injury. NICOTINIC EFFECTS: Muscle fasciculations, weakness, and respiratory failure. CENTRAL EFFECTS: CNS depression, agitation, confusion, delirium, coma, and seizures. Hypotension, ventricular dysrhythmias, metabolic acidosis, pancreatitis, and hyperglycemia can also develop.
- CHILDREN: May have different predominant signs and symptoms than adults (more likely CNS depression, stupor, coma, flaccidity, dyspnea, and seizures). Children may also have fewer muscarinic and nicotinic signs of intoxication (ie, secretions, bradycardia, fasciculations, and miosis) as compared with adults.
- INHALATION EXPOSURE: Vapors rapidly produce mucous membrane and upper airway irritation and bronchospasm, followed by systemic muscarinic, nicotinic, and central effects if exposed to significant concentrations.
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