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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- USES: Aluminum phosphide (AIP, aluminum monophosphide, aluminum (III) phosphide, phostoxin, fumitoxin) is an inorganic dark grey or yellow crystalline compound used as a fumigant, pesticide, and in semiconductor research.
- TOXICOLOGY: Its toxicity is secondary to the release of phosphine gas on contact with moisture or moist air. Phosphine blocks cytochrome C oxidase. This document covers effects from ingestion of aluminum phosphide. Information on the effects of inhalation of phosphine gas are covered in a separate management.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: Reported exposures are relatively rare in North America, but can be fatal. Worldwide, in certain countries such as in the Indian subcontinent, toxic exposures to humans are more common.
- WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
- MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain are common. Mucous membrane irritation is common. Tachycardia, fatigue, headache, anxiety, restlessness, and electrolyte abnormalities (hypomagnesemia, hypermagnesemia) may develop.
- SEVERE TOXICITY: CNS excitation or depression, hypotension, dysrhythmias, left ventricular dysfunction, metabolic and respiratory acidosis, esophageal strictures, elevated liver enzymes, and acute lung injury may develop. Pancreatitis and acute renal failure are rare complications.
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