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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- USES: Memantine is indicated in the treatment of moderate to severe dementia of the Alzheimer's type.
- PHARMACOLOGY: Memantine hydrochloride is a low to moderate affinity, noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist which binds to NMDA receptor-operated cation channels. Memantine also blocks the 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor (at a potency similar to the NMDA receptor) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (at one-sixth to one-tenth the potency). However, memantine has low to negligible affinity for gamma-aminobutyric acid, benzodiazepine, dopamine, adrenergic, histamine, and glycine receptors and for voltage-dependent calcium, sodium, or potassium channels.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY: Overdose is rare.
- WITH THERAPEUTIC USE
- The following adverse effects have been reported following therapeutic use of memantine (less than 6%): Headache, diarrhea, dizziness, somnolence, fatigue, muscle weakness, akathisia, agitation, increased motor activity, insomnia, tachycardia, bradycardia, hypertension, constipation, seizures, and psychosis.
- WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
- MILD TO MODERATE OVERDOSE: Effects can include agitation, bradycardia, confusion, dizziness, hypertension, lethargy, restlessness, unsteady gait, vertigo, vomiting and weakness.
- SEVERE OVERDOSE: Can cause nystagmus, hallucinations, psychosis, seizures, and coma.
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