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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- Fluoroacetic acid is the major metabolite of the series of fluoro ester compounds. It is used as a rodenticide. Little specific data were available specifically about the toxicity of fluoroacetic acid; its toxicity is expected to be similar to that of FLUOROACETATE.
- The following review discusses the toxicity and treatment of poisoning with FLUOROACETATE.
- Fluoroacetic acid is a colorless crystalline solid which burns with a green flame and which is soluble in water and alcohol. It can be irritating. It may be absorbed following ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact.
- Clinical effects are usually seen within 1/2 hour of exposure. Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, excessive salivation, abdominal pain, numbness, a tingling sensation, and apprehension are seen initially, and may last for up to 6 hours. Muscular twitching, blurred vision, and hypotension may develop.
- Severe effects such as coma, convulsions, and cardiac arrhythmias may be delayed in onset as long as 20 hours. One death due to subacute fluoroacetate poisoning has been reported.
- The cardiac effects noted include tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden onset of asystole.
- Death may occur from respiratory depression and hypoxia during convulsions or cardiac arrest.
- Neurologic sequelae and acute renal failure have been described after acute poisoning.
- Metabolic acidosis, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, elevated levels of hepatic transaminases, and elevated serum creatinine may occur in fluoroacetate poisoning.
- At least one case of severe poisoning with numbness and tingling of the face, excessive salivation, blurred vision, peripheral paresthesias, convulsions, and coma has occurred from inhalation and dermal contact with fluoroacetate. In general, fluoroacetate is absorbed following ingestion and inhalation, but not through intact skin.
- Fluoroacetate mimics acetic acid and reacts with coenzyme A and oxaloacetic acid, forming fluorocitric acid which enters and blocks the Kreb's cycle, allowing accumulation of citric acid.
- Fluoroacetamide releases toxic and irritating fumes of sodium oxide and fluoride when heated to decomposition. Inhalation exposure to such fumes would be expected to result in respiratory irritation with bronchospasm, chemical pneumonitis, or noncardiogenic pulmonary edema.
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