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|Example of Acute Exposure data from MEDITEXT.|
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ACUTE EXPOSURE INFORMATION
- Xylene is irritating to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Acute overexposure to xylene has caused renal impairment, evidence of liver function disturbances, temporary confusion, transient memory loss, pulmonary congestion and edema, and focal alveolar hemorrhage.
- Chronic exposure to xylene may cause defatting dermatitis, reversible eye damage, dyspnea, confusion, dizziness, apprehension, memory loss, headache, tremors, weakness, anorexia, nausea, ringing in the ears, irritability, thirst, mild changes in liver function, renal impairment, and anemia. Xylene contaminated with benzene has been associated with blood dyscrasias.
- INHALATION - Inhalation may cause reversible hepatic and renal toxicity. High vapor concentrations can cause CNS excitation followed by narcosis, olfactory changes, respiratory tract irritation, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Severe exposure may result in death due to respiratory arrest and/or ventricular dysrhythmias.
- INGESTION - Xylene ingestion can cause ventricular fibrillation, reversible hepatic and renal toxicity, CNS depression, a burning sensation in the oropharynx and stomach, and vomiting. Pulmonary aspiration can cause pneumonitis and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema.
- DERMAL (LIQUID) - Defatting of the skin with irritation, dryness, erythema, and cracking commonly occur. Blistering may occur, particularly if exposure to concentrated xylene is prolonged and the exposed area of skin is occluded.
- OCULAR - Brief exposure to high vapor concentrations can cause a sensation of irritation. Vacuolar keratopathy has occurred in a few workers with prolonged exposure to high vapor concentrations. Splash accidents have produced transient, superficial injury in most cases. Older literature reports conjunctivitis and occasionally corneal burns following eye contact with liquid xylene.
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